Visual references

The transition from instrument references to external visual references is an important element of any type of instrument approach. Some variations exist in company operating philosophies about flight crew task sharing for: acquiring visual references, conducting the landing, and conducting the go-around…. Continue Reading →

Safe Handling of TCAS Alerts

TCAS RAs are not correctly followed in more than 40% of cases according to a recent study published by Eurocontrol, making non-compliance with TCAS RAs one of the top 5 Air Traffic Management (ATM) operational and safety risks. This article explains how the TCAS Alert Prevention and AP/FD TCAS functions can improve the situation by…… Continue Reading →

Lining Up with the Correct Glide Slope

The ILS is accurate and reliable, but the ILS antenna design today causes secondary glide slopes to appear above the primary glide slope. Flight crews must be aware of this phenomenon to prevent unwanted aircraft behavior during an ILS glide slope capture. This article explains the phenomenon of secondary glideslopes and their effect on aircraft…… Continue Reading →

Erroneous Barometric Reference Setting During Approach

Using an erroneous barometric reference setting during approach may cause the aircraft to fly lower than the published approach path, when the vertical guidance and trajectory deviations use the barometric reference. This can lead to a risk of controlled flight into terrain in poor visibility conditions or at night. This document explains the potential consequences…… Continue Reading →

Thrust Reverser Selection is a Decision to Stop

It is a common rule for all aircraft: the SOP for landing requests that the flight crew perform a full stop landing after thrust reversers selection. However, in-service flight data analysis revealed that the equivalent of one go-around per month is performed after selection of thrust reversers. This Airbus article describes an event where the…… Continue Reading →

Terrain Avoidance Maneuvers

A typical training program to reduce approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs) should include the following: alert flight crews to the factors that may cause ALAs and CFIT; Ensure that situational awareness is maintained at all times; Ensure that crews attain proficiency in conducting approach procedures for their aircraft type;  Provide flight crews with adequate knowledge of the…… Continue Reading →

Stabilized approach

Unstabilized approaches are frequent factors in approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs), including those involving controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Unstabilized approaches are often the result of a flight crew who conducted the approach without sufficient time to ‘Plan’, ‘Prepare’ and ‘Conduct’ a stabilized approach…. Continue Reading →

Runway excursions

Runway excursions occur when an aircraft on the runway surface departs the end or the side of the runway surface. Runway excursions can occur on takeoff or landing. They consist of two types of events: Veer-off (a runway excursion in which an aircraft departs the side of a runway) and Overrun (a runway excursion in…… Continue Reading →

Energy Management

The flight crew’s inability to assess or to manage the aircraft’s energy condition during approach is cited often as a cause of unstabilized approaches. Either a deficit of energy (low/slow) or an excess of energy (high/fast) may result in an approach-and-landing incident or accident involving loss of control, landing before reaching the runway, hard landing,…… Continue Reading →