Treacherous Thawing

Slush may induce poor/nil aircraft braking action, contrary to runway friction readings.

Visual Illusions Awareness and Avoidance

Visual illusions take place when conditions modify the pilot’s perception of the environment relative to his / her expectations. Visual illusions may result in landing short of the runway, hard landing or runway overrun, but may also cause spatial disorientation and loss of control.

Tools For The Reduction Of Approach and Landing Accidents

Data from numerous safety studies indicate that approach and landing accidents account for a significant proportion of air transport accidents. The aviation industry is committed to reducing the number of these accidents. One effort has led to the creation of a toolkit containing industry data and recommendations for use by airlines worldwide.

The Continuous Threat of Runway Incursions

Another interesting article dealing with runway incursions...

Stabilized Approach and Flare Are Keys to Avoiding Hard Landings

Flight crews primarily use their judgment to identify and report hard landings, but recorded flight data also might be useful to gauge the severity of the impact before a conditional maintenance inspection is performed. The accident record shows that hard landings often involve substantial damage and sometimes result in fatalities.

Speaking Up

Voluntary safety reports by flight attendants prove to be more valuable than expected

Smoke Fire Fume Initiative

Boeing reminds that Smoke, fire, fumes events occur daily in commercial aircraft...

Sharing The Skies

This Transport Canada document is a crucial tool for managing hazardous interactions between wildlife and aircraft in the vicinity of airports. For example, some land-use activities near airports’ such as waste-disposal sites’ attract high-risk bird species and, therefore, directly impact aviation safety. Transport Canada strives for the holistic, proactive management of wildlife hazards by applying the system safety approach to engage all airport-area stakeholders, including community leaders, waste-disposal companies, farmers, airport authorities and airline operators.

Safety on the Straight and Narrow

Aviation safety experts aim for the Runway Safety Initiative to provide the tools to prevent runway excursions.

Safe Winter Operations

Airline engineering, maintenance, and flight personnel, as well as contracted airplane deicing service providers, need to be aware of the recent developments and recommendations for operating airplanes in winter weather conditions.

Risks related to Lithium Batteries

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) has become the dominant rechargeable battery chemistry for consumer electronics devices (e.g., smart phones and notebook computers) and is poised to become commonplace for industrial, transportation, and power-storage applications. From a safety and fire protection standpoint, a high energy density coupled with a flammable organic, rather than traditional aqueous electrolyte, has created a number of new fire protection challenges. Specific challenges include the design of batteries containing Li-ion cells, the storage and handling of these batteries, and challenges in determining the best response to suppress and control fires involving Li-ion batteries.

Revisiting The STOP or GO Decision

The aim of thus Briefing is to review the STOP or GO decision-making process, and the associated operational and prevention strategies to be applied, in order to limit the risks of taking inappropriate actions and unsafe decisions.

Response To Inflight Smoke

Engineering design by airplane manufacturers, oversight by regulators, and maintenance practices by operators combine to minimize occurrences of smoke, fumes, and fire in the pressurized areas of airplanes. When smoke does occur, timely and appropriate action by the flight and cabin crews is imperative. Boeing has analyzed in-service smoke, fumes, and fire events and reviewed airplane systems and crew procedures for its commercial airplane models

Refuelling With Passengers On Board

This Airbus Briefing is designed to provide all personnel, involved in refueling operations, with an overview of the applicable recommendations.

Reducing the threat of laser illuminations

Laser illumination of commercial airplanes is a growing threat to operational safety, and the number of incidents is increasing. the u.S. Federal aviation administration (FAA) laser- incident database contains more than 3,200 reports of incidents since 2004 and provides information on the locations, altitudes, color of light, and phases of flight that show the most activity. by knowing how the laser affects the eye and following recommended procedures, pilots can reduce this safety threat.

Reducing Smoke and Burning Odor Events

At the recommendation of operators, Boeing has undertaken studies of smoke and burning odor (SBO) events occurring on airplanes. The studies provide fleetwide information so that operators can take steps to reduce SBO events.

Protecting Airline Personnel From Falls

Open doors, access panels, and hatches on parked airplanes can be potential safety hazards for airline personnel unaware of the opening. Flight attendants and servicing staff have suffered injuries as a result of falls through these openings. Investigations of these accidents by Boeing indicate that they are preventable by proper and consistent use of barriers and following airline policies and procedures.

Preventing Runway Incursions

The objective of this Briefing Note is to provide awareness of a runway incursion, the associated contributing factors and, related prevention strategies, especially in terms of best practices for flight crew to avoid runway incursions.

Preventing Landings without clearance

A great many reports to NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System identify pilots' failure to obtain clearances prior to landing. How to prevent Landings without Clearance?

Never Cross Red

Exceptions to a global rule weaken the effectiveness of the stop bar as a last defense against runway incursions.

Missed Assessment

Tired pilots neglecte to perform a required review before landing

Minimizing the Impact Runway Arresting Systems

Many airports throughout the world have joint commercial-military operations. Runways at these airports often are equipped with arresting gear systems for tactical military aircraft to use for landing. These systems pose a potential damage and safety hazard to commercial airplanes that use the same runways. Airports and airlines can take steps to help ensure safe commercial operations under such circumstances. Measures include writing airport procedures specifically for commercial airplane operations, modifying existing arresting systems, reducing declared landing and takeoff distances, and increasing inspections of airplanes with nosegear spray and gravel deflectors.

Margin for Error

Airplanes continue to run off the ends of runways lacking adequate overrun areas with disastrous consequences, yet acceptance of a unified standard for overrun areas and installation of safety areas where they are needed generally remain slow. Civil aviation authorities worldwide appear to have given a mixed reception to recent changes in international airport design requirements intended to prevent or reduce damage and injury during overrun on takeoff or landing.

Managing Uneven Brakes Temperature

Operators typically purchase twin-aisle airplanes for long-distance flights. However, when market conditions dictate, operators may use some of these airplanes on shorter flights. In such instances, appropriate action by the flight crew can reduce the likelihood of brake overheating and concomitant departure delays.

Lithium Batteries – Risk Mitigation Guidance for Operators

This guide is designed to outline potential strategies airlines may wish to consider to reduce the risks associated with the transport of lithium batteries. These strategies address the carriage of lithium batteries as cargo on passenger and cargo aircraft as well as in passenger and crew checked and carry-on baggage.

Lessons from the Dawn of Ultra Long Range Flight

Validation studies of nonstop flights between Singapore and the United States show that recommended operational guidelines developed by Flight Safety Foundation can help airlines worldwide to expand their operational envelope while maintaining safety.

Language Barrier

After a simple error wiped out much of their navigation information, the Polish pilots of a 737 were unable to adequately communicate their problem to British controllers

Inflight Fire – Important to React Quickly

Within 15 minutes of receiving indications of a fire on the main cargo deck the night of July 28, 2011, the flight crew of an Asiana Airlines Boeing 747-400 freighter found that they could neither reach a nearby airport nor conduct a controlled ditching in the Yellow Sea below

Identified Threats when Transitioning from IMC to VMC

The pilots were looking out the windshield, anticipating visual contact with the runway, when the A300 descended below minimums at Birmingham.

High Stakes in language Proficiency

In an effort to reduce accidents involving communication deficiencies, ICAO is requiring pilots, controllers and aeronautical station operators involved in international operations to be tested for their ability to speak and understand English. At stake are careers, industry investment in training and testing - and safety.

Glideslope Unusable

It took a moment, at a bad time, for the pilots to decipher an unexpected and unuasual clearance

Getting To Grips With Cabin Safety

This Airbus brochure is a comprehensive review of Cabin Crew Emergency Procedures, incorporating Fire, Smoke, Emergency Evacuation, Ditching, Cabin Depressurization and Crew Resource Management. The aim of « Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety » is to provide Operators with guidance to develop procedures to implement their own cabin safety program, which is customized to the Operator’s specific requirements.

GPWS Safety Alert

An FSF CFIT Safety Alert distributed to thousands of operators worldwide, emphasizes the importance of an immediate and decisive response by flight crews to ground-proximity warning system (GPWS) warnings.

Flightcrew response to In-Flight Smoke, Fire, or Fumes

Smoke, fire, or fume (SFF) events can occur suddenly in commercial airplanes. Yet information about the source of the event may be vague, incomplete, inaccurate, or contradictory. Additionally, there is a wide range of possible sources and situations.

Erroneous ILS Indications Pose Risk of CFIT

Several incidents involved flight crews who observed normal, on-course instrument landing system (ILS) indications although their aircraft were not established on the glideslope or on the localizer course.

Factors to Consider Before an Emergency Evacuation

Flight crews must consider many factors in deciding whether to order an evacuation.

Enhancing Terrain Awareness

This briefing provides a set of operational recommendations and training guidelines to establish and maintain the desired level of terrain awareness.

Emergency Evacuation On Ground

New procedures presented by Airbus.

Darkness Increases Risks of Flight

Human perceptual limitations are blamed for specific types of accidents that are more likely to occur in darkness than in daylight. Special hazards associated with night flying continue to cause accidents despite efforts to inform pilots of the risks.

Danger of Falling Overhead Baggage

Minimal traumatic brain injury is one serious consequence of injury caused by baggage falling from overhead compartments. Between 20 percent and 60 percent of such patients have symptoms three months after being injured.

Culture Counts

The importance of establishing and maintaining a positive safety culture and climate in any aviation organization is now beyond debate. But little attention has been paid to measuring an organization’s safety environment, an omission that is important because, as business schools preach, you can’t manage what you can’t measure.

Cosmic Radiation

Crew members who regularly fly at high cruise altitudes receive higher levels of ionizing radiation than the general population. The increased risk appears to be slight, but greater attention is being focused on monitoring of, and education about, ionizing radiation.

Cockpit and Cabin Smoke Procedures

The objective of this presentation is to review the latest Airbus developments on the topic, recall the Cockpit/Cabin Smoke Procedure Philosophy, outline the recommendations of the Airbus « Smoke » Working Group, and how they will be incorporated in the smoke procedures.

Charts raise Pilot Awareness Of Minimum Vectoring Altitudes

At least 158 paper charts published by 34 civil aviation authorities currently provide advisory information about minimum vectoring altitudes to pilots. Newly released data for 374 U.S. MVA charts should encourage development of electronic versions that will help to prevent controlled flight into terrain.

Can They Talk The Talk

Just because pilots claim English as a native language, that doesn’t mean their aviation English is up to par.

Cabin Decompressions Awareness

The objectives of this briefing is to review the different types of decompression and enhance cabin and flight crew awareness of the importance of rapidly taking appropriate actions to successfully manage decompression.

Cabin Safety Effects of PEDs

Social media pressures and expanded use of portable electronic devices disrupt conventional cabin safety.

CFIT Digest

Flight Safety Foundation task force presents facts about approach-and-landing and Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) accidents.

CFIT Check list

The Flight Safety Foundation CFIT Checklist helps pilots and aircraft operators assess the CFIT risk for specific flights.

CFIT Business Jet Operations

Loss of control was the second leading cause of fatal business jet accidents worldwide from 1991 through 2002. Inadequate crew coordination and monitoring were cited in the majority of business jet incidents

Bracing The Last Line Of Defense against Midair Collisions

Recent accidents have prompted the International Civil Aviation Organization to clarify that pilots must comply immediately with airborne collision avoidance system resolution advisories, even when contradictory instructions are issued by air traffic control.

Birdstrike Threat Awareness

Experience shows that birdstrike events are common. Pilots may expect to encounter from two to five birdstrikes during their career.

Birdstrike Threat

Today’s wildlife strike problem has a storied history.

Antidepressants in Aviation

Use of antidepressant medications by pilots and air traffic controllers does not increase the risk of aviation accidents or incidents, according to a study of 10 years of aviation safety data from Australia, where aeromedical authorities have allowed the supervised use of antidepressants since 1987.

Analysis of fumes and smoke events in Australian aviation

This study has been undertaken in order to further understanding of the nature and impact of fumes and smoke related occurrences in relation to the safety of aircraft operations in Australia and, in doing so, evaluate associated data availability and suitability. This report also addresses recommendations from a 2011 report commissioned by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) by an Expert Panel on Aircraft Air Quality that aviation safety agencies work together to provide a comprehensive study of cabin air contamination incidents.

Airbus Takeoff Safety Training Aid

The purpose of this brochure is to provide the Airlines with Airbus data to be used in conjunction with the TAKEOFF SAFETY TRAINING AID published by the Federal Aviation Administration. Airframe manufacturer's, Airlines, Pilot groups, and regulatory agencies have developed this training resource dedicated to reducing the number of rejected takeoff (RTO) accidents.

Aging Transport Systems Investigation

The U.S. FAA and industry representatives are working together to determine how existing maintenance practices may be improved to help ensure the continued airworthiness of older airplanes. Although factfinding efforts to date have found no endemic safety issues, recommendations are being made to enhance the design and maintenance of airplane electrical systems and associated documentation and training.

Advancements In Overhead Stowage Bin Article Retention

The retention of passenger baggage in airplane stowage bins during flight is of industrywide interest.

Global Action Plan for the Prevention of Runway Incursions

Runway incursions are among the most persistent threats to aviation safety. The ICAO places runway incursions among the five highest-risk categories of events that must be addressed to mitigate the risk of aviation fatalities. The Global Action Plan for the Prevention of Runway Incursions is the result of aviation industry stakeholders coming together in a dedicated working group to discuss and agree on the most important actions to address the runway incursion risk.

Bird strike or Hail on the Radome

Abnormal events such as bird strikes and hail strikes can occur at any time. When the aircraft is struck by birds or Foreign Object Debris (FOD), the correct inspection process
must be followed, before the next flight, to determine if the aircraft is safe to fly. This Airbus article focuses on the effect that a bird or hail strike can have on the radome of the aircraft. It recalls the recommendations to flight and maintenance crews to ensure correct detection, reporting, and management of a bird or hail strike. It also explains why it is important to always check both the outer and inner sides of a radome after any bird or hail strike event.

Do not Wait to Apply the Engine Fire Procedure

Several recent engine fire events highlight the importance of timely application of the engine fire procedure. This article explains why flight crew must apply this procedure without delay. Decisive action when there is an engine fire alert may prevent further damage to the engine. This can help to ensure that a manageable fire situation does not become an uncontrolled fire with more serious consequences.

Prevention of EGT Overlimit Events

A number of engine Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) overlimit events at takeoff were reported to Airbus, including dual events leading to a significant increase in flight crew
workload at low altitude. This article recalls the importance of monitoring the EGT margin of each engine to detect any degradation in engine performance early, and provides recommendations to Maintenance, Flight Operations, and flight crews to prevent EGT overlimit events. It also reminds us of what to do in the case of an EGT overlimit indication at takeoff.

The Role of Safety Pilots During Line Training

The underlying reason for having such a ‘Safety Pilot’ on board is to ensure that if the Training Captain concludes during a duty period that a trainee is failing to make adequate progress towards the standard required, they can be replaced by the Safety Pilot moving to their normal operating seat and, if necessary, the Training Captain changing seats.

Rarely Used Normal Procedures

The majority of Normal Procedures will be used often and it can be expected that pilots will have no difficulty following them. If the possible need to use those which are only rarely used can be anticipated, then this can be covered in prior, suitably focused, briefings.

Flying Circling Approaches Safely

Circling approaches represent a demanding departure from the straight-in approaches normally flown and should be very carefully pre-briefed and flown within the specified airspace and in strict accordance with a prescribed circuit track where required.

Unexpected Go-Arounds

The most likely scenario for a go-around is probably either a still-occupied runway or visibility which prevents continuation of an approach at or near the applicable minima. If this happens, the possibility will often - but not always - have been foreseen. These are also the sort of go-arounds which feature in every simulator session, although usually with an engine out and heightened expectation. The need to begin an unexpected go around may occur much earlier in the approach and not have been foreseen. It is these go arounds which the evidence suggests are relatively more likely to lead to problems.

Turboprop Airframe Icing Risk

Turboprop aircraft are relatively underpowered relative to jet types and because of the atmospheric conditions when operating in IMC at typical flight levels, turboprop aircraft often fly where severe airframe icing conditions are most likely to occur.