Understanding RNP Approaches

Many years experience of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) based on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) such as GPS for en-route and terminal area navigation has led to an extension of the same principle to RNAV approaches as an alternative to those relying entirely on ground-based aids. The good understanding of the RNP approach is essential…. Continue Reading →


Terrain awareness can be defined as the combined awareness and knowledge of the following: aircraft position,aircraft altitude, applicable minimum safe altitude (MSA), terrain location and features, and other hazards…. Continue Reading →