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Limitations of the See and Avoid principle

In 1991, BASI (The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation) published a research report titled, Limitations of the See-and-Avoid Principle. This report concluded that "the see-and-avoid principle, In the absence of traffic alerts, is subject to serious limitations". Unalerted see-and-avoid has a "limited place as a last resort means of traffic separation at low closing speeds, and is completely unsuitable as primary traffic separation for scheduled services". This report highlighted the fact that "many of the limitations of see-and avoid are associated with physical limits and human perception", and encouraged pilots to be, "made aware of the limitations of the see-and-avoid procedure, particularly the factors which can reduce a pilot's effective visual field".

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