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Freezing Rain as an In Flight Icing Hazard

The NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft experienced a prolonged exposure to "classical" Freezing Rain that formed extensive ice formations including ridges and nodules on the wing and tail, and resulted in a substantial performance penalty. Although the case study provides only a singular FZRA event with one aircraft type, it is clear that classical FZRA can pose a significant in-flight icing hazard, and should not be ignored when considering Supercooled Large Drop issues.

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